Sultan Suleiman The Magnificent Of Ottoman Empire

Sultan Suleiman The Magnificent Of Ottoman Empire

Sultan Suleyman ruled the Ottoman Empire for 46 years, from 1520 to 1566. He is granted a long life and at the same time he became the ruler at the age of 25.

He was the 10th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and luckier than most of the previous Sultans since he was the only heir of his predecessor Sultan Selim I. Therefore he was not perished by the power struggle to capture the priceless throne of the extremely rich Ottoman Empire.

The young Ruler immediately displayed himself to be a King of many talents and many titles. His official title is Sultan Suleiman I of Ottomans but he is better known as Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in the Western world and as Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkey and Middle East.

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Greatest Borders of Ottoman Empire

Suleiman created major legislative changes related to society, education, taxation, criminal law. His ground-breaking Codex-Suleiman synthesized Turkish local traditions with Islamic law. His concept of “Justice” fixed the form of the Turkish Empire for centuries after his death as a milestone of the Ottoman Law. That is how he got the hobourable title of Kanuni “Lawgiver” in 600 years of Ottoman History.

His skill as military man tripled the size of his Ottoman Empire. Suleiman personally leaed his legions in conquering the Christian strongholds of Belgrade, Hungary and even Rhodes. He went as far as the gates of Austria in 1529. Turkish fleet patroled Mediterranean Sea and major trade routes under his rule. He used to have brilliant military strategist Abraham Pasha as his Grand Vizier (Like A Prime Minister) and Hayreddin Barbarossa (Red Beard) as admiral of his dreadful fleet.

16th Century is known as Age Of Great Kings

The 16th century is also described as Age of Great Kings. The Tudors: Henry VIII, then Elisabeth I in the England, Ivan the Terrible in the Russia, Francis I in the France, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V were all rulers of the world by the time of Suleiman the Magnificent.

At home, he was a talented poet and skillful goldsmith. He was also a generous patron of arts, textile, woodwork, architecture, calligraphy, painting, tiles. His reign was always mentioned as the golden age of Ottoman Empire.

Genious and productive Ottoman Architect, Mimar Sinan, served to him for long years. Sinan built his great mosque: Süleymaniye as a eternal resting place for Suleiman The Magnificent and his beloved wife Roxelana. Their tombs are located within the courtyard of Suleymaniye Mosque which is located right at the heart of the old  Istanbul.

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Room Of Roxelana In The Topkapı Palace

Rise of Roxelana

Ottoman Sultans never ever married except one or two. Suleiman The Magnificent broke the imperial traditions and rules and married to his concubine Roxelana. She had an Russian origin. Suleiman fell in love with this eye-chatching lady and married her. In nearly 25 years of marriage Sultan Suleiman is believed to had been monogamous.

She was one of strongest women in Ottoman Empire’s history. She gained too much power and influence and involved in the politics of the Ottoman Empire through Suleiman and played an active role in state affairs of the Ottoman Empire. Her rule was the beginning of the Sultanate of Women. A time when the Ottoman ladies became so powerful. They ruled the Empire in the name of their husbands or sons.

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Magnificent Century TV Series

Their renowned love story was the subject of TV series in Turkish TV channels. Magnificent Century TV series had been on screen for the last several years and millions of people watched Suleiman’s love story with Roxelana. The show became very succesful in entire Asia and Eastern Europe.

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Suleiman And Roxelana

Sultan Suleiman’s Heritage

At the time of Suleiman’s death, the Ottoman Empire was the world’s most powerful state. Sultan Suleiman’s gathering had brought under the control of the Empire the majority of Middle Eastern Muslim cities, many Balkan provinces, almost entire North Africa. His expansion to the central Europe had given the Ottoman Turks very powerful presence in the European balance of power. He failed only at the gates of Vienna. His army had to retreat at the Siege of Vienna due to some mistakes of his Grand Vizier.

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By Serhat

Istanbul Private Tour Specialist

Empire Of Great Seljuk Turks

Empire Of Seljuk Turks

In Medieval 11th century, the Seljuk Turks of Asia, created a strong rule in Isfahan and Asia Minor that developed a great culture.

The Seljuk Turks (Selçuklular) were a Turkish tribe from Central Asia. They marched to Persia (1037) and set up a glorious state with Isfahan as their main capital. Renamed by modern historians as the Seljuk Empire of Turks (Turkish: Selçuklu Devleti)

Map Of Great Seljuk Empire
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Map Of Great Seljuk Empire

 

Seljuks gets closer to Byzantine frontiers

The Abbasid Caliph who lives in Baghdat, gave their ruler Tughril, the impressive title “Ruler of the east and west of the world” designating the Seljuk warlord as his temporal deputy and defender.

Alp Arslan (Successor of Tughril) expanded significantly upon Tughril’s territories by seizing Armenia and Georgia (1064). Occupied eastern end of the Byzantine Empire borders. (1068) The war between Seljuks and Byzantine was inevitable from then on.

Rapid Cavalry Units Of Seljuk Turks
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Seljuk Cavalry

Battle Of The Giants: Battle of Manzikert

In 1071 this Seljuk army engaged the legions of the Byzantine ruler Romanos IV Diogenes at Manzikert (Malazgirt) north of Lake Van.  Byzantine legions were strong and heavily outnumbering the Seljuk army. However Seljuk ruler Alp Arslan, used strategic tactics , surrounded and defeated Byzantine legions decisively. Seljuks captured Byzanrine Emperor Romanos IV himself. They did not drag him back to capital in victory but release him for a ransom and massive tracts of Byzantine lands.

Battle Of Manzikert 1071

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Rise and Fall of Seljuk Empire

Alp Arslan’s decisive victory at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 effectively broken the Byzantine defence to the Turkish invasion of Asia Minor. With no Byzantine force to stop them, the Seljuk armies flooded into Anatolia, taking control of most of Eastern and Central Anatolian lands.

The reigns of Alp Arslan and his successor Malik Shah, were the most glorious years of the Great Seljuks of Persian lands. The death of the Malik Shah marked the decline of Seljuk Turks and by 1192 the dynasty collapsed. The bir pressure from the Crusaders and new Turkish clans caused the Grand Seljuk Empire to collapse.

Army And Soldiers Of Seljuk Turks
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Soldiers Of Seljuk Turks

Sultanate of Rum in Asia Minor

The remaining Seljuk clans created their new capital at Iconium (Konya) around 1150 and ruled what would be known as the Sultanate of Rum (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) The small Seljuk ruling class governed a population that was mostly greek- speaking (Byzantine origins) Christians of Asia Minor, with a large Jewish minority.

Seljuk Sultante Of Rum Map
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Seljuk Sultante Of Rum Map

Seljuk Empire to Ottoman Empire

Just as they had overwhelmed the Byzantines two hundred years before, the Seljuk Empire could not resist the most recent wave of nomadic pressure. The Mongols were approaching from the eastern borders. Once strong Turkish Seljuk army was utterly routed at Battle of Kösedağ against the Mongol tribes.

Seljuk Architecture In Istanbul Turkey
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An example of Seljuk Architecture in Istanbul.

Mini vassal city-states were established in Asia Minor after the collapse of Seljuk Empire. Among the new warlord principalities of the 1290s was one based near İznik (Nicaea) on the Byzantine frontier and led by a leader named Osman Bey (Othman Ghazi) grew quickly in strength and size. Osman was about to establish one of the mightiest empires of the world: Ottoman Empire.

Map Of Ottoman Empire
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Map Of Ottoman Empire

Selçuklu Devleti or Seljuk Empire left a diverse heritage to Turkey.

Seljuk government was tolerant of all races and religions. Many of Churches and synagogues built during their rule in Asia Minor. most of the finest examples of Seljuk architecture, such as mosques, caravansary and palaces can be seen majorly in central and eastern part of Turkey (Anatolia). Erzurum (Theodosiopolis) , Sivas (Caesareia) and Konya (Iconium)

By Serhat

Istanbul Private Tour Specialist

serhateng@gmail.com